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Title: SUBSTANCE AND ALCOHOL ABUSE: ASSOCIATED EFFECTS AND COMPLICATIONS

Authors: OBAFEMI-MOSES, OLAYINKA AYODEJI

Topic: Psychology

Abstract:

Abstract

Drug abuse is a worldwide problem, with adolescent and adult population particularly at risk. A number of complications and adverse effects are associated with substance abuse which can be summarized under the following captions:

 ·       Physical Illness 

      ·       Psychological/Mental Illnesses 

      ·       Socio-economic complications 

      ·       Forensic/Legal complications

Generally speaking, Drug abuse can result in serious behavioral and emotional changes that ultimately destroy a person’s life.

The negative effects from drug abuse can have immediate and long-term consequences.  Careers have been ruined and families have been devastated because of drug abuse. Physical harm or death can result from drug abuse because of reckless behavior by the drug abuser.

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    COMMENT - 1

  • petrus (Pete) (Viewer) 17th Nov 2015 - 2:37 PM
    Very interesting subject: I would like to ask the following two questions please:
    1) How does neurodevelopment subscales differ in infants diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder?
    2) If a pregnant woman abuse drugs, does it affect the fetus?

    All the best
    Petrus

  • COMMENT - 2

  • Olayinka Ayodeji Obafemi-Moses (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 4:32 PM
    1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a preventable cause of mental retardation worldwide
    and the most severe category within the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Other
    disorders within the FASD spectrum include: Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (PFAS),Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) and Alcohol Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ANRD). It presents as a teratogenic effect as a result of excessive consumption of alcohol by a pregnant woman.
    The measurement of neurodevelopment subscales is best done with the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. It is used to measure the rate of development of young children.
    from birth to two years and then to eight years. It is graduated into six(6) subscales for effectiveness:

    Sub-scale A: Locomotor: Gross motor skills including the ability to balance and to co-ordinate and control movements.
    Sub-scale B: Personal-Social: Proficiency in the activities of daily living, level of independence and interaction with other children.
    Sub-scale C: Language: Receptive and expressive language.
    Sub-scale D: Eye and Hand Co-ordination: Fine motor skills, manual dexterity and visual monitoring skills.
    Sub-scale E: Performance: Visuospatial skills including speed of working and precision.
    Sub-scale F: Practical Reasoning: ability to solve practical problems, understanding of basic mathematical concepts and understanding of moral issues.
    (Source : Hogrefe Group Ltd, Publishers of Psychology Journals, Books and Psychometric Assessments).

    2. If you are pregnant and you are using drugs, there is the propensity for the substance use to have a negative effect on the unborn child because the effects of the drug goes into the fetus through the placenta. This is true whether the substance is alcohol, nicotine and so on.
    Here are some examples of how the substance abuse of a pregnant woman can effect her unborn child:

    Alcohol abuse can cause fetal alcohol syndrome.
    Cocaine use can cause low birth weight.
    Nicotine use can cause premature birth.
    Heroin use can cause a greater risk of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Poor nutrition, inadequate prenatal care, stress, and psychiatric comorbidities are associated with substance abuse during pregnancy as well.
    I hope this answers your questions. Thank you for the interest shown.

  • COMMENT - 3

  • Kavita Gupta (Viewer) 20th Nov 2015 - 10:33 AM
    Dear OBAFEMI-MOSES, OLAYINKA AYODEJI,

    Good effort.

    However, it is advisable to do the following things in order to, improvize your article:
    1. Citations - in text referencing needs to be done
    2. Add conclusion, discussion and recommendations to your study.
    3. Follow APA format as guided.

    Thanking you,

    Regards,
    Kavita.
    • Olayinka Ayodeji Obafemi-Moses (Author) 23rd Nov 2015 - 9:47 PM
      Kavita,
      Your suggestions are well-taken. This is my first attempt and participation in this Scientific Conference. I have noted your contributions please.
      Chetna,
      Thanks for your inquest. I will like to reiterate that any drug used without prescription is tantamount to abuse. Prescribed drugs can also be abused when you do not use according to Physician's instructions. Common pain killer like paracetamol can be abused if one chooses to use it at every moment you feel some pains.
      You do not take drugs for recreation. Any use of drugs without prescription by the Physician is drug abuse.
      Thank you

  • COMMENT - 4

  • CHETNA PUNIA (Viewer) 23rd Nov 2015 - 12:12 PM
    There are incidences of abuse of prescription drugs too apart from , what are your opinion on that.
    Which all drugs did you take into consideration, any specific cannabis?
    How does one differentiate between drug abuse and harmless use of drugs for recreation?

  • COMMENT - 5

  • Olayinka Ayodeji Obafemi-Moses (Author) 23rd Nov 2015 - 9:48 PM
    Chetna,
    Thanks for your inquest. I will like to reiterate that any drug used without prescription is tantamount to abuse. Prescribed drugs can also be abused when you do not use according to Physician's instructions. Common pain killer like paracetamol can be abused if one chooses to use it at every moment you feel some pains.
    You do not take drugs for recreation. Any use of drugs without prescription by the Physician is drug abuse.
    Thank you

  • COMMENT - 6

  • Mr. Matin Ahmad Khan (Viewer) 24th Nov 2015 - 12:00 PM
    Dear Sir
    Have you looked these with HIV angle as HIV and substance use have been closely connected since the very beginning of the HIV epidemic. Injection drug use is one of the ways that HIV is spread and is responsible for approximately 10% of new HIV infections each year..
    For people living with HIV, drug and alcohol use can significantly affect their health and well-being, and complicate their HIV care and treatment. It can also put them at risk of transmitting the virus to others. Some people develop substance use disorders—the use of alcohol or drugs that is compulsive or dangerous (or both). But for a substance use disorder, fortunately treatment is available that can help them to recover and live a full and active life. Getting treatment for substance use disorders is an important part of staying healthy even with HIV.
    • Olayinka Ayodeji Obafemi-Moses (Author) 26th Nov 2015 - 4:45 PM
      Dr Khan,
      Thanks for your comments. I agree totally with your submission. When shared needles, syringes are used by drug addicts, it portends serious danger to health. HIV patients who abuse drugs whether compulsive or dangerous with shared sharp instruments will infect others with the virus.
      By and large, my position is that drugs and other substances must not be abused and everyone must endeavor to stay healthy by consciously living well. Treatments are available for substance use disorder.
    • Olayinka Ayodeji Obafemi-Moses (Author) 26th Nov 2015 - 4:57 PM
      Dr Khan,
      Thanks for your comments. I agree totally with your submission. When shared needles, syringes are used by drug addicts, it portends serious danger to health. HIV patients who abuse drugs whether compulsive or dangerous with shared sharp instruments will infect others with the virus.
      By and large, my position is that drugs and other substances must not be abused and everyone must endeavor to stay healthy by consciously living well. Treatments are available for substance use disorder.

  • COMMENT - 7

  • Sunil Chowdary (Viewer) 24th Nov 2015 - 10:28 PM
    very eloberative description , can u just clear my doubt, under the law if the person is mentally disabled and if he is under some physicians treatment and in the due course of tretment if the patient lands up in some medicolegal incident like homicide or RTA is he liable for the incident/.. with regrds

  • COMMENT - 8

  • Olayinka Ayodeji Obafemi-Moses (Author) 26th Nov 2015 - 4:56 PM
    Dr Sunil,
    Good day,
    Thank you for your comments and question. From my little legal knowledge, if a mentally disabled person who is under the care of a Physician commits homicide, i do not think he is liable. The reason is that the Law recognizes that he is not in the right frame of mind. That is why such people are kept under the watchful eyes of relations or in Assylums. The full weight of the law can not be applied on such people as a result of the unconscious state of their minds.