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Title: VIOLENCE AGAINST NURSES IN NIGERIA AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN REDUCING THE VIOLENCE

Authors: Udogwu,Felix

Topic: Nursing

Abstract:

ABSTRACT

Violence against nurses is a complex and persistent occupational hazard facing the nursing profession. The job sector with the mission to care for people appears to be at the highest risk of workplace violence. Nurses are among the most assaulted workers in the Nigeria workforce. Too frequently, nurses are exposed to violence – primarily from patients, patients’ families, visitors and other health care workers. This violence can take the form of intimidation, harassment, stalking, beatings, stabbings, shootings, and other forms of assault. Violence, aggression, and harassment exist in virtually all workplace and this not only affect the individual’s health and morale, it negatively affects productivity due to reduced morale and motivation  (Azodo et al., 2011, Vittorio, 2003). It has been shown that workplace violence affects every professional group in every country and sometimes to an ‘epidemic’ extent(Gates 2004; Mohamad and Motasem 2012). In the health care sector, all categories of healthcare workers are at risk of violence though at  different degrees with the nurses having up to three times higher than others (Abbas et al., 2010; Azodo The purpose of this project work is to point out some of the violence melted against nurses and to conduct a review and assessment of the problem of violence against nurses. Analysis presented within this research work is based on complains and write up in various State in Nigeria Hospitals and clinic. Finally, recommendations integrating the analysis and literature review. The recommendations contained herein address regulatory issues, educational programs, nursing practice interventions, and data collection and dissemination issues as they relate to the problem of violence against nurses.

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    COMMENT - 1

  • MUSA JAMES LASSA (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 12:06 PM
    Please could you tell me the rating scale you used in measuring the degree of violence on nurses compared to other profession?

  • COMMENT - 2

  • Chukwu Emmanuel Okechukwu (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 5:35 PM
    Well done for your work. I would however want to say that it seems your methodology is not clearly stated. How many hospitals did you review, out of the ones reviewed, how many are private hospitals and how many are public or government hospitals and what levels of health care hospital and clinics did you review- are they primary, secondary or tertiary health care levels of institutions. I would also want to know the geographical locations from which these hospitals were selected from in Nigeria because these factors can have significant effects on the violence being melted against the nurses as you have said. Also what rating scale was used in measuring the level of violence being melted against nurses against other health workers before arriving to the conclusion that nurses have three times higher violence being done to them than other health care personnel.

  • COMMENT - 3

  • Daniel Chirundu (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 8:51 PM
    Thank you for your submission. It raises a number of issues that are ignored most of the time. However I have a few comments on your offering:-

    1. What is the problem you were investigating in this work? What prompted you to do this study.
    2. Introduction/ Background is not setting out the stage for us as readers to appreciate the need for the study.
    3. What were your broad and specific objectives......was it to narrate newspaper coverage??
    4. In literature review you death too much on definition of terms and did not present to us what other researchers have done!
    5. Methodology- What was your study design, what was you study population and why? How did you do your sampling-How did you collect and analyse your data?
    6. It will be interesting to find out the prevalence of work related violence and strategy it by sex as well.

    5

  • COMMENT - 4

  • Ms SURRIYA SHAHNAZ (Viewer) 17th Nov 2015 - 11:53 AM
    The topic is very relevant to nurses but I also agree with the comments given by Daniel Chirundu that what was the purpose,objectives,study design which are not clear. As this is worldwide problem of nurses you could easily find out the prevalence of violence against nurses.surriya shahnaz

  • COMMENT - 5

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 17th Nov 2015 - 3:37 PM
    Please sorry for the delay in replying your queries Mr. • Daniel Chirundu
    1. The problem that was investigated is the violence that Nurses face why doing their job.
    2. As an Occupational Hygienist, an occupational health Nurse, a Safety and Environmental technologist, Is part of my work and duty to look at the health hazard and dangerous occurrence that my first line of discipline is facing, this is what led me to investigate on the violence that Nurses face, I am also a witness to a victim of community attack in South South part of Nigeria in a place called Forcados terminal, a colleague of mine was beaten up because he refused to allow them do away with his medicine.
    The dangers arise from the exposure to violent individuals combined with the absence of strong violence prevention programs and protective regulations within the organization. These factors together with organizational realities such as staff shortages and increased patient acuity create substantial barriers to eliminating violence in today’s health care workplace.” (McPhaul & Lipscomb, 2004)
    3. The broad objectives is to make sure that the government, both at the federal level, state level and local government, including private hospital and clinic employee know the dangers that Nurses and other health care personal are facing which arise from the exposure to violent individuals combined with the absence of strong violence prevention programs and protective regulations within the organization. I want the aforementioned action parties to do the needful in prevention violence against health care personnel most especially Nurses who are with the patient, patient family and friends 24/7.
    The specific objective is for the action parties to create immediate safety for all health care personal. Just has the patient has a right, the Nurses also has right.
    4. Yes you are right; i elaborated and define all the key issues that is term violence for us to know. if you go to the contributing factors, you will see some research that was carried as stated by (McPhaul & Lipscomb,2004)
    Homeyer (2005) also said that Nurses often feel powerless to deal with a situation in which they have been victimized and, as a result, accept violence as part of the job
    (Shader, Broome, Broome, West, & Nash, 2001). Publication as stated in the article state that As job satisfaction decreases as a result of violence, the likelihood of nurses leaving their employment increases with nurses finding different roles within the health care setting or leaving the profession entirely
    5.I used the questionnaire and the face to face interview, the result was place in a simple pie chart were the percentage result was given.
    The study population of Nurses that was used and given the questionnaire was 101 and the sample was done randomly.
    6. Take a look at the participant (male and Female)
    101 PARTICIPANT WAS INVOLVED IN THE RESEARCH
    SEX/YEARS OF EXP. NO OF PARTICIPANT Pecentage %
    MALE NURSE (0-5 yrs) 30 (29.7%).
    FEMALE NURSE (0-5 yrs) 70 (70.3%)

  • COMMENT - 6

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 17th Nov 2015 - 3:39 PM
    Please I want to apologize for the delay in the response, Duties first
    Reply to Mr. Musa James Isaac
    Comment I.D 1520
    The scale rating used was gotten from the result of the questionnaire result from Federal Neuropsychiatry Hospital, Yaba, Lagos.(Western Part of Nigeria) which included the following health care personnel –Medical Doctor, Staff Nurse, Pharmacist, Medical Lab staff, Nursing Assistant and Nursing Student.
    The answered questionnaire was placed in simple pie chart and the percentage gotten is what was shown in the article.
    I want to thank you for not only reading the article but also asking question.

  • COMMENT - 7

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 17th Nov 2015 - 3:48 PM
    Sorry for the delay in replying - surriya shahnaz

    The purpose of the write up was to first of inform all action parties that Nigeria Nurses are faced with various form of violence which take different name as was well explained in the literature review.

    The broad objectives is to make sure that the government, both at the federal level, state level and local government, including private hospital and clinic employee know the dangers that Nurses and other health care personal are facing which arise from the exposure to violent individuals combined with the absence of strong violence prevention programs and protective regulations within the organization. I want the aforementioned action parties to do the needful in prevention violence against health care personnel most especially Nurses who are with the patient, patient family and friends 24/7.
    The specific objective is for the action parties to create immediate safety for all health care personal. Just has the patient has a right, the Nurses also has right.
    I used the questionnaire and the face to face interview, the result was place in a simple pie chart were the percentage result was given and the face to face interview with Nigeria news paper publications.

  • COMMENT - 8

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 17th Nov 2015 - 3:52 PM
    I want to thank surriya shahnaz,Mr. Musa James Isaac,Daniel Chirundu and musa james lassa for the professional and sound question being asked.

  • COMMENT - 9

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 17th Nov 2015 - 3:53 PM
    I will not fail to thank Mr Chukwu Emmanuel Okechukwu for the professional and sound question that he asked,thanks

  • COMMENT - 10

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 17th Nov 2015 - 3:56 PM
    Thank you • Chukwu Emmanuel Okechuku.
    Face to face interview. The rating scale on this case was the highest affected number of health care personnel interviewd, which happens to be Nurses.
    Two Private Hospital in the North (Kano) Northern part of Nigeria
    One Family Home Nursing Care in the North. Northern part of Nigeria
    One Government owned Hospital in the south south Bomadi in Delta State Nigeria. Southern part of Nigeria
    The other scale used was the questionnaires which was distributed to Medical Doctor, Staff Nurse, Pharmacist, Medical Lab staff, Nursing Assistant and Nursing Student and the result and figures place in a simple pie chart were the percentage result came out.
    1. I went on-line to sample the topic violence on Nigeria health care workers, and much result came up. Which Nurses has the highest cases of violence among the health care personnel that are affecting like you will see case 2. From the South – South Riverine Coastal Area of Delta State, Nigeria on the 4th, November, 2014.From Daily Independent news paper report. Nurse, others beaten up for demanding hand gloves 4th,November,2014.By John Dugbe / Special Correspondent, Ughelli (Nigeria News papers name is Daily Independent news.)
    Mr.Chukwu Emmanuel Okechukwu, you can verify online and you might even see news once that are happening as we participate in this conferences.
    2. This is a well-know private hospital in Kano -Case 3. From The North-Western Nigeria, Information is gotten from Metro News of August 8th, 2014 Nurse allegedly gang-raped by two youths in Kano:- Home / Metro News / Nurse allegedly gang-raped by two youths in Kano. This also can be verified. For your information the people involved were arrested and will be persecuted.
    FACE TO FACE INTERVIEW:
    In this case, the violence also occurred in the family home Nursing care of the 80years woman according to her testimony, She said many of such incidents had taken place in the hospital leaving many nurses seriously wounded while some had been beaten into a stupor.
    Another Case: A nurse and another non-medical staff of the state government owned hospital in Bomadi, in my state Delta, The incident occurred around 8:15pm on Wednesday at the female/children ward of the hospital when a nurse on duty asked a 46-years-old man identified as Mr. P. Ebitonmo (also known as Ghadafi) you can verify it.
    He said rampaging Ghadafi later took to his heels when he heard that the joint Task Force JTF Nigeria Army attached in that area had been informed and were on their way to the hospital..

  • COMMENT - 11

  • Sunday Yohannah Dangyang (Viewer) 18th Nov 2015 - 12:55 PM
    Sunday
    your work is good, well done but following the train you did not come up with findings on which type of harassment tops. Remember your research is limited to Nigeria. So your work should be able to point that out.

  • COMMENT - 12

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 18th Nov 2015 - 8:17 PM
    Thank you Mr. Sunday Dangyangs for your comment.if you see the table below you will see that the violence that affect female nurse score 70.3% which signify that more of the violence are towards the female,and among the case i mentioned ,rape was one of them.
    SEX/YEARS OF EXP. NO OF PARTICIPANT Percentage %
    MALE NURSE (0-5 yrs) 30 (29.7%).
    FEMALE NURSE (0-5 yrs) 70 (70.3%)

  • COMMENT - 13

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 20th Nov 2015 - 3:33 AM
    To all the readers and followers of this conference,Nursing as a profession should be givenfull attention by government ,private and cooeperate organization setting good policies and regulations which should be put in place in preventing any form of attack on this noble profession.only a gentle talk and care from a skill professional nurse can heal a patient more than 1000mg of medication.healing is base on believe and mind set.thanks all.

  • COMMENT - 14

  • UDOGWU FELIX (Author) 24th Nov 2015 - 1:35 AM
    Good to know that violence against Nurses is worldwide base and we must take home what we are learning rom this conference to try nd stop it in our own lttle way.