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Title: PATTERN OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG NIGERIAN AIR FORCE (NAF) PERSONNELL AT SAM ETHANAN AIR FORCE BASE, IK

Authors: Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai

Topic: Clinical Research

Abstract:

Objective; The study examined the pattern of Substance Use among the Nigerian Air Force Personnel. Method. All the participants were airforce personnel. Officers and Men were randomly selected (N=250) and each subject was assessed using; 1) a Health Questionnaire {that assessed socio-demographic variables as well as the pattern of use and consumption of liquor), 2) Alcohol and drug sections of the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), and the 28 – item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ -28). The personnel were informed that completion and returning the questionnaires would indicate consent to participate in the research. Results; One hundred and ninety males and sixty females comprising officers and men participated. The mean age of the group was 30.9 years, with a range of 21 – 44 years; SD 4.35. One hundred and eight (42.6 percent) were 20 – 29 years, while one hundred and thirty (52 percent) were 30 – 39 years, and Twelve (5.4 percent) were 40 and above years. The difference in mean age between officers and men was not statistically significant following analysis of variance (ANOVA), F=2.59, P=0.148. The most commonly used substances were mild stimulants (coffee and kolanuts), alcohol, cigarette, cannabis, and hypnosadatives in that order. About the same trend was observed for the lifetime use. As many as 158 (63.3 %) of the respondents were current users of alcohol and almost everyone in the sample 92% have used alcohol in their lifetime. Fifteen 6% of the respondents were currently using cannabis, while 18.7% were lifetime users. Disorders were recorded for past year (ie criteria met within the previous 12 months) and lifetime (ever met criteria) using SCAN. Overall, 21 (8.3%) and 6 (2.3%) of the respondents DSM 1V diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence respectively in the past year; Eleven (4.7%) and 13 (5.3%)met the criteria for nicotine abuse and dependence respectively in the past year; 10 (4.0%) and 3 (1.0%)met the criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence respectively in the past year. A total of 42 respondents (16.8%) scored eight and above on the GHQ-28 scale. Thus the probable psychiatric morbidity rate for the cohort was about 17%.

Key Words;    Military, SCAN, GHQ, Substance Use, Psychiatric Morbidity.

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    COMMENT - 1

  • Kavita Gupta (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 9:14 PM
    Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai,

    I would like to appreciate the effort being made you in this innovative research.
    However, I would like to know whether this research received Ethical Approval from the concerned source as any research involving humans require ETHICAL APPROVAL.

    Thanking you,

    regards,
    Kavita.
    • Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai (Viewer) 19th Nov 2015 - 2:28 AM
      Dear Kavuta,

      Ethical approval was obtained from the Directorate of Medical Services, Nigerian Air Force Headquarter, Abuja, Nigeria.
    • Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai (Viewer) 19th Nov 2015 - 3:00 AM
      Dear Kavuta,

      Ethical approval was obtained from the Directorate of Medical Services, Nigerian Air Force Headquarter, Abuja, Nigeria.

  • COMMENT - 2

  • MELISA PEREIRA (Viewer) 17th Nov 2015 - 9:31 PM
    Dear Dr. Bashir,

    This is a good research initiative from your side.

    However, would like to bring to your notice a few calculation errors in Table 3- Current Usage Pattern.
    1) Alcohol: daily + weekly + monthly+ occasional use nos. = 8 + 63 + 47 + 39 = 157 air force personnel
    1 subject missing when compared to N= 158 for this Alcohol group

    2) Similarly, for Cigarette: 46 +19 + 2 + 13 = 80 air force personnel
    8 subjects missing when compared to N= 72 for this Cigarette group

    Can this be justified with a purpose?

    Thanks & Regards
    Melisa
    • Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai (Viewer) 19th Nov 2015 - 2:59 AM
      Dear Melisa,

      Thanks for the good observation. It was indeed a topographical error, after reviewing our entry data, we discovered there were 9 (nine) and not 8 that reported daily usage of alcohol. The same thing applied to the use of tobacco, instead of 46, it was supposed to be 36 for daily usage, and for monthly users, it was supposed to be 4 and not 2.

  • COMMENT - 3

  • Kavita Gupta (Viewer) 19th Nov 2015 - 3:23 PM
    Dear Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai,

    Though your article is quite informative, yet I would like to know something regarding this article.
    1. How can pattern of Substance use among Nigerian Air force Personnel contribute to further research work?
    2. Why there is a need of urge to look into this?
    3. It is advisable if you could have added some suggestions regarding preventive measures and harm with respect to scientific and societal relevance.

    Thanking you,

    Regards,
    Kavita.

  • COMMENT - 4

  • Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai (Viewer) 20th Nov 2015 - 1:25 AM
    Dear Kavita,

    Thanks once more for your useful inquiry. To answer all your questions at once, we have been able to convice the Nigerian Air Force authority to establish a Drug Abuse Program for its personnel. Already, a lot of advocacy campaigns have been launched to create awareness of the dangers of drug abuse.In addition, it has now become a policy to screen all new entrants for substance use before they can qualify for enlistment. Furthermore, a proposal has been made to extend this study to include all other air force formations in Nigeria.

  • COMMENT - 5

  • Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai (Viewer) 20th Nov 2015 - 1:27 AM
    Dear Kavita,

    Thanks once more for your useful inquiry. To answer all your questions at once, we have been able to convice the Nigerian Air Force authority to establish a Drug Abuse Program for its personnel. Already, a lot of advocacy campaigns have been launched to create awareness of the dangers of drug abuse.In addition, it has now become a policy to screen all new entrants for substance use before they can qualify for enlistment. Furthermore, a proposal has been made to extend this study to include all other air force formations in Nigeria.

  • COMMENT - 6

  • Dr. AJIT V PANDYA (Viewer) 20th Nov 2015 - 10:28 PM
    1. what makes different people to get addicted at different level ?

  • COMMENT - 7

  • Pramod Kumar Jagannathrao Wable (Viewer) 21st Nov 2015 - 8:19 PM
    Dear Dr Bashir,

    Good job! What was your inclusion and exclusion criteria apart from the Air Force Personnel?

    Please explain?

    Kind regards,
    Pramod Wable

  • COMMENT - 8

  • Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai (Viewer) 22nd Nov 2015 - 12:03 AM
    Dear Dr Ajit, Individual differences (Could differences in genetic make up, or could be situational, etc , etc..) make different people get addicted at different levels.

    For Dr Pramod, our inclusion criteria is all uniformed personnel of the Nigerian Air Force, while exclusion criteria include; all personnel with any medical or mental health problems as well as those with impending disciplinary issues.