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Title: Knowledge and attitude of handwashing among school children and education on hand washing technique

Authors: Marie Louise Umwangange

Topic: Public Health

Abstract:

Hand washing is a basic and simple practice which has a positive impact on community health; effective hand washing is an important measure to prevent the spread of microorganisms.

The objective of this study is to assess knowledge and attitude of hand washing among school children and to provide a health education session on effective hand washing technique.

It is a quantitative cross-sectional study. The study used a sample size of 180 children studying in grade 4, 5 and 6. A self- administered questionnaire was used to collect data, 170 questionnaires were well filled and a health education session was conducted on effective hand washing technique.

The results revealed 78.2% children who reported to always wash hands after using toilet, 88.8% children who reported to always wash hands before eating. 82.3% reported to use water and soap when washing hands and 87.1% reported that they washed in palm, between fingers and in fingernails. The study showed that the reasons of not washing hands properly are forgetfulness (46.4%), lack of water (18.2%), lack of soap (17%), being in hurry (10.5%) and lack of water and soap (7.6%). The prevalence of diarrhea in three previous months was 13.5%. More than one third of the respondents do not know the importance of handwashing and more than one quarter do not know the consequences of not washing hands properly. The over-reporting of hand washing was different of what observed before health education when only 2 among 15 children randomly chosen washed between fingers.

There is a need of health education in order to improve the knowledge of children regarding hand washing and extending the health education sessions to other schools.

Key words: knowledge, attitude, handwashing, school children, health education.

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    COMMENT - 1

  • Dr. AJIT V PANDYA (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 11:54 AM
    good morning to all from ajit v pandya......active participant....full day from 16-11-2015 to 25-11-2015....

    1.in india this is recommened but water by which hands are washed is some time polluted and may cause disease......what is your answer and how to solve this ?
    • Umwangange Marie Louise (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 4:17 PM
      Thank you Dr Ajit. The water from hand washing should be discarded and treated according to the water sewage treatment policy.

  • COMMENT - 2

  • Dr. AJIT V PANDYA (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 11:56 AM
    good study........should be carried out also in developing country like india, bangladesh, pakinstan, srilanka....etc.....
    • Umwangange Marie Louise (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 4:16 PM
      Thank you Dr Ajit. The water from hand washing should be discarded and treated according to the water sewage treatment policy.

  • COMMENT - 3

  • Daniel Chirundu (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 12:33 PM
    Thank you for the presentation. May you clarify the following:-

    What was the problem at Muyumbu that prompted you to do the study?
    How did you calculated your sample size?
    How did you measure knowledge and attitudes?
    Other Observations
    You did not label the axis on your graphs!
    You did not standardise your responses.....

  • COMMENT - 4

  • NDWIGA TARATISIO (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 3:08 PM
    Where did you do your research? It not mentioned.
    • Umwangange Marie Louise (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 4:13 PM
      Thank you Ndwiga. The study was carried out in Eastern province of Rwanda at Muyumbu Primary school, Rwamagana District, Muyumbu Sector. Thank you I will include all these details in study area part of the study.

  • COMMENT - 5

  • Pamela Nyaradzai Magande (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 4:12 PM
    Given that this study was conducted in children, may you please explain how you obtained permission to carry it out.?
    How did you assess the prevalence of diarrhea
    • Umwangange Marie Louise (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 4:04 PM
      Thank you Pamela. I asked permission in Authorities of the school i.e the Head teacher who informs the parents that the pupils will be educated on hand washing techniques after being assessed on their knowledge.
      The diarrhea was assessed by asking the children to recall and record on the questionnaire if they had diarrhea in the past 3 months.

  • COMMENT - 6

  • MELISA PEREIRA (Viewer) 17th Nov 2015 - 12:53 PM
    Dear Marie,

    Good efforts.

    My question is: The hand washing technique used in this research was adapted using which international/ local body guidelines?
    • Umwangange Marie Louise (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 4:10 PM
      Thank you Melisa. I have used the hand washing technique adapted by the World health organization

  • COMMENT - 7

  • Umwangange Marie Louise (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 3:54 PM
    Thank you Melisa. I have used the hand washing technique adapted by the World health organization.

  • COMMENT - 8

  • Umwangange Marie Louise (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 5:53 PM
    Thank you Daniel for your observation, I have to label the axis of the graphs.
    The hygiene of the hand is a problem in any area even in health facility due to lack of knowledge about proper technique of hand washing.I chose Muyumbu, as the more convenient and accessible area, and the study will further expand in other schools with interventional study.
    About the sample size calculation, I calculated it according to Depelteau (2000) where by a sample size in human science a sample size must represent 10% of the size of the population (the target population was 985 students).
    The knowledge and attitude were measured using a self-administered questionnaire

  • COMMENT - 9

  • Dr. AJIT V PANDYA (Viewer) 21st Nov 2015 - 9:42 PM
    what you suggest for slums in india ?
    • Umwangange Marie Louise (Author) 21st Nov 2015 - 10:52 PM
      Thank you Dr Ajit. in terms of healthy people in healthy community, proper housing and environment can not be neglected. The issue of slums in India should be addressed by the Indian authority, sitting together and propose a long-term plan to solve the problem of unhealthy housing. meanwhile, the waste/used water should be collected and disposed in a certain area as it is done for solid waste in Rwanda. They can establish a policy of collecting used water so that it could be treated appropriately, otherwise it can cause diseases as you mentioned earlier especially in slums. However, proper hand washing remains a cornerstone in preventing the feco-oral transmissible diseases.