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Article Number: EC/2014/003

Authors: Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan

Topic: Clinical Research


Introduction: Culture and social status are key determinate of attitude and behaviour towards prevention and control of many diseases of Public health importance including HIV.

Objectives: This study determines socio-cultural barriers to early diagnosis and prevention of HIV among women of reproductive age in Southwestern Nigeria

Methods; Descriptive cross sectional qualitative study among women of reproductive age group and health care givers concerning socio and cultural factors influencing diagnosis and prevention of HIV. Five Focus Group Discussions (FGD) of 8 eligible respondents each were conducted using a pretested FGD guide in collecting data from the randomly selected subjects. Data was analyzed using simple content analysis.

Results:  Cultural and social factors influencing HIV vulnerability and transmission identified include low education status, poor awareness among women, low employment and economic power, adverse religious beliefs and practices, reluctance to accept teaching of FLHE in schools and the public, stigma and discrimination even from the health care workers affecting health seeking behaviour. Other factors include polygamy, male dominance, low decision power and value of women, remarrying after divorce, widowhood rights, wife inheritance and sharing, early marriage, and some cultural breastfeeding practices encouraging HIV transmission

Conclusion: Raising community awareness by traditional, cultural and religious gatekeepers becomes imperative to circumvent many of the identified social and cultural factors constituting barriers and influencing HIV diagnosis and prevention


    COMMENT - 1

  • CHRISTINA HENRY PEREIRA (Viewer) 28th Jan 2015 - 12:06 PM
    Dear Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan, your study seems to be a sincere attempt to understand the plight of women at risk of contracting HIV. The article is detailed and very informative. My only suggestion is to state the absolute values in terms of "% of women" (numerical value) rather than "half/three quarters of discussants". Categorizing the responses in some way and presenting the results graphically will improve the aesthetic quality of the article.
    • OLALEKAN WASIU ADEBIMPE (Author) 29th Jan 2015 - 3:45 AM
      Thanks for your observations. However this is a qualitative study using FGD, and analysis of simple content done in data management. there is no way that % would have been used. in such situation, one may linearly quantify the number of discussants who responded or agreed with a particular question - such as majority, few, half, two thirds etc. Those are the intrigues in reporting of qualitative studies.

  • COMMENT - 2

  • EBENEZER OBI DANIEL (Viewer) 30th Jan 2015 - 5:10 PM
    This work is in tandem with MDG 5 and 6. Its good. But what type of sampling procedure did you employ, and kindly give your actual sample size? How did you calculate the size?
    • OLALEKAN WASIU ADEBIMPE (Author) 9th Feb 2015 - 4:10 PM
      This is a strictly QUALITATIVE study. No sampling size calculation was done expectedly. However, simple random sampling method were employed in selection of the eligible subjects that took part in the focus group discussions as exp0lained in the article under 'sampling' this is the case in the selection of the two categories of respondents to allow for probability sampling/scientific non biased selection of subjects. Thank you

  • COMMENT - 3

  • SADAF TABASSUM (Viewer) 31st Jan 2015 - 4:52 PM
    The literature provide evidence to suggest that appropriate implementation of sound family-oriented, culture-centered interventions could go a long way towards achieving the comprehensive four pronged strategy currently in place in Nigeria, including: the primary prevention of HIV infection among women of reproductive age, the prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women, the prevention of HIV transmission from HIV infected mothers to their infants, and the provision of care and support for HIV infected mothers, infants and family members. Overall, the findings of the literature reviewed are congruent with the notion that culture matters with determining the level of health of the individual, family, and community context. Our findings also lend support to the idea that culture-centered interventions focused on the factors that nurture the individual including family contexts is crucial to the success of PMTCT(Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. ) service uptake such as HIV testing, infant feeding choices. Finally, while we examine the role of culture in this paper and are also making the case for faith-based intervention research, very little is known about the intersection of culture and faith particularly in the context of families. We believe this is an important area of future research
    • OLALEKAN WASIU ADEBIMPE (Author) 9th Feb 2015 - 4:13 PM
      Thanks for your comments. This narrow gap like you said could be the beginning of further research that would specifically dwell on the faith or religious aspect of social health. Thanks.

  • COMMENT - 4

  • ABONYI LIVINUS CHIBUZO (Viewer) 3rd Feb 2015 - 2:50 AM
    This is a well written article on an issue of current relevance.The research design is well specified and this directed the overall methodology.
    The selective adaptation of the tenets of FLHE to the cultural dictates and religious belief of the different communities, in the light of the universal right of every woman and child will go along way in addressing the high prevalence of HIV in women.
    The article would have done with more tables, especially those that would have displayed the issues discussed and the summary result.The only table included was not referred to in the body of the article. However, the article highly contributes to knowledge.
    • OLALEKAN WASIU ADEBIMPE (Author) 9th Feb 2015 - 4:17 PM
      Readers should generally appreciates the meaning of Descriptive Qualitative research and get used to analysis method. This is not a quantitative nor mixed study design and no questionnaire or checklist was used. FGD was used rather. The findings were analyzed using 'SIMPLE CONTENT ANALYSIS'. This method does not require any table, even the table of socio-demographics showcased is not compulsory. the results are well reported.. meanwhile Thanks.

  • COMMENT - 5

  • AVI NAHAR (Viewer) 7th Feb 2015 - 7:11 PM
    Dear Adebimpe Wasiu Olalekan,
    Very well structured article. Despite of best efforts at every level, social stigma associated with HIV in developing nations hampers the prevention, early diagnosis & management of positively diagnosed patients. Training & Re-training is the only way forward. Various initiatives like Train the Trainer & training in a conducive atmosphere familiar to the trainee goes a long way in better understanding & fruitful education.
    • OLALEKAN WASIU ADEBIMPE (Author) 9th Feb 2015 - 4:19 PM
      Thanks for your comments