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Title: Case repot on Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni

Article Number: EC2/2015/020

Authors: Dr Madhumati Varma

Topic: Clinical Research


Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic disease caused by parasitic worms. At least 249 million people required preventive treatment for schistosomiasis in 2012. The number of people reported to have been treated for schistosomiasis in 2012 was 42.1 million.People are infected during routine agricultural, domestic, occupational and recreational activities which expose them to infested water.Lack of hygiene and certain play habits of school-aged children such as swimming or fishing in infested water make them especially vulnerable to infection.Schistosomiasis control focuses on reducing disease through periodic, large-scale population treatment with praziquantel; a more comprehensive approach including potable water, adequate sanitation and snail control would also reduce transmission.


A two boys of one family transfer from district to evaluation and treatment in Central hospital Nampula. Both take bath and drink water of river. First boy was 10 year old with increased volume of abdomen with hematuria for last 3 month on examination noted anemia, with hepatomegaly 5 cm with border regular, soft without pain during palpation and slight thrill of liquid on abdomen. Second one 8 years presented with hematuria and volume of abdomen also increased on examination noted also anemia, hepatomegaly with border regular without pain about 3 cm and hypogastric region palpable mass with border irregular about 3 cm of diameter. There were asked analysis noted both moderate anemia, ovum of schistosoma hematoberium. Ecoabdomen 1st one hepatomegaly 5 cm with ascites. Second one Cyst of urinary bladder. Both given symptomatic and praziquantil   medication. Asked consultation urology second one and biopsy. They both discharge after treatment on good condition.


    COMMENT - 1

  • Daniel Chirundu (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 1:10 PM
    Thanks for the case study. It maybe a good idea to do a schistosomiasis survey in the area the boys come from and facilitate treatment of those infected>
    • Madhumati Varma (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 10:34 PM
      Thanks for compliment

  • COMMENT - 2

  • Kavita Gupta (Viewer) 16th Nov 2015 - 9:09 PM
    Dear Dr Madhumati Varma,
    I would like to appreciate for bringing a new topic in the lime light. A good Effort.
    However, it seems that the article is missing the APA format for in text as well as, text referencing.
    The article could have been better if some evidence based studies are also included in support of your case study.

    Thanking you,
    • Madhumati Varma (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 10:12 AM
      Hello Kavita Thanks for comments .I used formate which provided by Texila team and econferance, APA formate, I agree to you evidence based study will be better but i am focusing on case study report.
      Dr Madhumati

  • COMMENT - 3

  • Dr Bashir Adam Yakasai (Viewer) 19th Nov 2015 - 4:30 AM
    Dear Varma,

    While introducing the subject matter, you have not made any citation. It appears all the wordings in your literature are your own. Can you justify this? Thank you.
    • Madhumati Varma (Author) 19th Nov 2015 - 11:10 PM
      There was need to fallow recommendation of APA formate and limited length of work.So there was no possibility to give Introduction in detail.
      Here is brief introduction on Bilhazios/ Schistosomiasis

      Schistosomiasis is a type of infection caused by parasites that live in fresh water, such as rivers or lakes, in subtropical and tropical regions worldwide.
      Schistosomiasis is also known as bilharzia.
      Symptoms can develop a few weeks after someone is infected by the parasite and include:
      flu-like symptoms, such as a high temperature (fever) above 38ºC (100.4ºF) and muscle aches
      a skin rash
      a cough
      Alternatively, more serious symptoms can develop months – and possibly years – after infection, and include:
      blood in the urine
      bloody diarrhoea
      abdominal pain or cramps
      vomiting blood
      paralysis of the legs
      Treamtment praziquantil and prevent to take fresh water river bath wher epidemy

  • COMMENT - 4

  • Madhumati Varma (Author) 20th Nov 2015 - 8:04 PM
    Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is a tropical disease caused by worms of the genus Schistosoma. The transmission cycle requires contamination of surface water by excreta, specific freshwater snails as intermediate hosts, and human water contact. The main disease-causing species are S haematobium, S mansoni, and S japonicum. According to WHO, 200 million people are infected worldwide, leading to the loss of 1·53 million disability-adjusted life years, although these figures need revision. Schistosomiasis is characterised by focal epidemiology and overdispersed population distribution, with higher infection rates in children than in adults. Complex immune mechanisms lead to the slow acquisition of immune resistance, though innate factors also play a part. Acute schistosomiasis, a feverish syndrome, is mostly seen in travellers after primary infection. Chronic schistosomal disease affects mainly individuals with long-standing infections in poor rural areas. Immunopathological reactions against schistosome eggs trapped in the tissues lead to inflammatory and obstructive disease in the urinary system (S haematobium) or intestinal disease, hepatosplenic inflammation, and liver fibrosis (S mansoni, S japonicum). The diagnostic standard is microscopic demonstration of eggs in the excreta. Praziquantel is the drug treatment of choice. Vaccines are not yet available. Great advances have been made in the control of the disease through population-based chemotherapy but these required political commitment and strong health systems.
    • Madhumati Varma (Author) 22nd Nov 2015 - 9:57 PM

  • COMMENT - 5

  • Pramod Kumar Jagannathrao Wable (Viewer) 21st Nov 2015 - 8:15 PM
    Dear Dr Verma,

    Nice article and with the case study.

    Good luck!

    Kind regards,

    Pramod Wable
    • Madhumati Varma (Author) 22nd Nov 2015 - 9:59 PM
      Mr Pramod
      Thanks for compliment
      Dr Madhumati

  • COMMENT - 6

  • Amrit Bhalchandra Karmarkar (Viewer) 23rd Nov 2015 - 6:18 PM
    Dear Dr Verma,
    Good article discussed with case study

    Kind regards,
    • Madhumati Varma (Author) 24th Nov 2015 - 11:01 PM
      Mr Amrit
      Thanks for liking my article
      Dr Madhumati