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Article Number: EC/2014/015

Authors: Essien Grace Clement

Topic: Public Health


Pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria are the leading cause of death of children in sub-saharan Africa. If appropriate care is sought early, these deaths are largely prevented. The purpose of this study was to review the care seeking behaviour among care givers of children under five years in three geo-political zone (North East, South West and South East) in Nigeria.

Titles and abstract of published studies in childhood malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea disease in the three geo-political zone in Nigeria over the period of ten years (2004-2014) were reviewed. Reports and guide prepared by UNICEF and WHO were also consulted.

The findings revealed that majority of care givers in the three geo political zone do not seek care outside home. Some only visit health centre or hospital after illness had failed to respond to several drugs and ineffective treatment or when sickness becomes fatal. Difficulty in accessing the health centre, perceived deficiencies in the performance of formal health service, attitude of health personnel, cultural practice etc are some of the reasons given for not seeking care at the health facilities.

A lot still need to be done in creating awareness and educating care givers and community members on the need to seek prompt health care at the health facility for their children when they have any ailment.


    COMMENT - 1

  • EBENEZER OBI DANIEL (Viewer) 28th Jan 2015 - 2:02 PM
    The work is good for achieving MDG 4. I just wish to know how you arrive at your sampling size and how you handle the confidentiality.
    • GRACE CLEMENT ESSIEN (Author) 29th Jan 2015 - 2:36 PM
      Thanks for your comments. If i can understand your question, i didn't need to do use sampling technique. My work was based purely on literature review on studies carried out in the different geo political zone that i focused on. I concentrated on recent studies (those not more than 5 to 6 years) carried out in the area.

  • COMMENT - 2

  • JACKSON KIHUHA KAGUAMBA (Viewer) 28th Jan 2015 - 8:25 PM
    Hello Grace
    I wish to comment on this paper. As Daniel says, itís a great topic and quite interesting. The writing is also good and clear.
    However, I think you have used terminologies and abbreviations that might be difficult for someone from outside the study area to understand. What does NDHS mean? What is a Patent Medicine Vendor? ( excuse my ignorance if itís a conventional universal terminology)
    My other comment is on the material used as the bedrock of your paper. You mentioned in the abstract that you used TITLES and ABSTRACTS of studies. If you did not use entire papers, how would you verify whether the materials presented were good quality and credible? The rule of literature review is that you utilize the whole article and criticize it, especially when you use literature, as you have done, as the sole material of your paper. I hope I donít sound too critical, but that would dilute the verity of the paper.
    • GRACE CLEMENT ESSIEN (Author) 29th Jan 2015 - 2:44 PM
      Many thanks for your observation and comments. I am sorry i didnt define NDHS when i first cited it in the literature review. However, i did that in the findings, though i didnt include the abbreviation. NDHS simply means, National Demographic and Health Survey. NDHS involves the collection of comparable population-based data on fertility, contraception, maternal and child health and nutrition in developing countries. In Nigeria, NDHS is conducted every five years.

      The patent medicine vendor (or dealer or seller) can be define as a person without formal pharmacy training, who sells orthodox pharmaceutical products on a retail basis for profit. Patent medicine stores are owned by the holders of patent and proprietary medicine vendors licenses. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are the only drugs authorized to be sold by vendors.

      Secondly, because of the nature of the work, i reviewed the titles and abstract of all relevant published studied that i came across. However, if required, i retrieved full text to assess the eligibility of the study. The eligible studies were retrieved and data extracted.

      I believe i have answered your questions.

  • COMMENT - 3

  • Onoruvie Gift Otegah (Viewer) 29th Jan 2015 - 4:48 PM
    Good job, but can you tell us more about how you gather your sample?
    • GRACE CLEMENT ESSIEN (Author) 30th Jan 2015 - 1:12 AM
    • GRACE CLEMENT ESSIEN (Author) 30th Jan 2015 - 1:15 AM
      i didn't need to do use any sampling technique. My work was based purely on literature review on studies carried out in the different geo political zone that i focused on. I concentrated on recent studies (those not more than 5 to 6 years) carried out in the area.

      I hope i have answered your question

  • COMMENT - 4

  • JACKSON KIHUHA KAGUAMBA (Viewer) 29th Jan 2015 - 8:07 PM
    Okay, thanks for clarifying.
    Its interesting though, that antimalarials are sold OTC by non professionals. Overuse/misuse may lead to resistance.
    • GRACE CLEMENT ESSIEN (Author) 30th Jan 2015 - 1:18 AM
      You are right. Thats why we always recommend training of patent medicine vendors from time to time

  • COMMENT - 5

  • ABDULLAHI BUKAR (Viewer) 29th Jan 2015 - 9:12 PM
    Weldone Grace

    In addition Knowledge of vaccine- preventable diseases, their causes and prevention was found to be poor. Caregivers in most of the hard to reach settlements especially in Northern part of Nigeria were unable to distinguish between polio vaccine given from house to house and other vaccines, thus report on uptake of vaccines was always in reference to house-to-house vaccination. Vaccine uptake was variable in the different communities, from very low to almost all children being given. The increasing involvement of traditional rulers appear to positively impact on emerging acceptance of the vaccine. Ignorance of the vaccinesí usefulness, suspicion as to the motive and misconception that the vaccine will sterilize their children, in addition to complaints about the neglect of their felt needs were reasons given for the rejection of the vaccines.

  • COMMENT - 6

  • EKAETE TOBIN (Viewer) 31st Jan 2015 - 1:21 AM
    Well done. You will need to make more recommendations than you have done in the light of findings from your study. This is an important topic in public health, and it will be useful to proffer recommendations that can influence policy decision making and evaluate existing or planned interventions.